Preference for Numerical information: PNI (Viswanathan 1993) - Statswork

Preference for Numerical information: PNI (Viswanathan 1993)

The preference for Numerical information: PNI scale were developed by Viswanathan (1993) which composed of 20 items scored on 7-point Likert scale items ranging from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree. There are three components are:

  • Usefulness,
  • Satisfaction
  • Enjoyment individuals

All three components contain items specific to reflects a preference/proclivity, and not necessarily an ability, toward numerical information.

The authors state:

"PNI also focuses on numerical information rather than mathematical or statistical domains, and the PNI is considered relevant to a variety of settings rather than a specific context "


Viswanathan, Madhubalan

Reliability and Validity

  • Coefficient alpha estimates for the PNI were .92 to .94

Obtaining the PNI

Southwestern university

The author expressed their perception in following, with regards to PNI scale. Researchers may utilise the scale of Preference for Numerical information: PNI (Viswanathan 1993) in any proper published source.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statswork composed of a team of professional statisticians which can obliged the professional or student researcher in support to fill the survey instrument, gathering the information, organising the analysis and describing the results.

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