"Nostalgia Scale (Holbrook 1993) - Statswork "

Nostalgia Scale (Holbrook 1993)


Nostalgia refers to a longing for the past, a yearning for yesterday, or a fondness for possessions and activities associated with days of yore. Nostalgia has been defined by Holbrook as “a preference (general liking, positive attitude, or favorable affect) towards objects (people, places or things) that were more common (popular, fashionable or widely circulated) when one was younger (in early childhood, in adolescence in childhood or even before birth)”.


There are eight components in a nostalgia scale which is mentioned as under:-

  • They don’t make ‘em like they used to
  • Things used to be better in the good old days
  • Products are getting shoddier and shoddier
  • Technological change will insure a brighter future
  • History involves a steady improvement in human welfare
  • We are experiencing a decline in the quality of life
  • Steady growth of GNP has brought increased human happiness
  • Modern business constantly builds a better tomorrow


The nostalgia scale is composed of eight items as mentioned above which is scored on a 9 point Likert scale that ranges from strong disagreement (1) to strong agreement (9). Item scores can be summed to form an overall score of nostalgia.


Initial confirmatory factor analysis showed a ‘poor fit’ to the original 20 items representing nostalgia. A stepwise procedure was used to eliminate items with low loadings and items that threatened a unidimensional factor structure (n = 167). The eight items retained from this procedure showed adequate evidence of unidimensionality, as well as adequate coefficient alpha and construct reliability estimates of internal consistency of 0.78 (for a summated scale). Factor loadings ranged from 0.49 to 0.76 (p < 0.01). For the n = 156 sample, the eight item, single factor structure was replicated with coefficient alpha and construct reliability estimates of 0.73. Factor loadings ranged from 0.34 to 0.60 (p < 0.01).


Holbrook, Morris B. (1993), “Nostalgia and Consumption Preferences: Some Emerging Patterns of Consumer Tastes,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (2), 245-56.

For more information on this service, click here

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statswork composed of a team of professional statisticians which can obliged the professional or student researcher in support to fill the survey instrument, gathering the information, organising the analysis and describing the results.


    Service Required
    Methodology consultationQuestionnaire designData collectionData cleaning Analysis of dataInterpretation of analysisOthers

    Preferred Software

    Upload Files

    Get the Help from Professional Statisticians & Biostatisticians