Survey Instruments Questionnaire - Statswork

Assumptions about the nature of social sciences


In social science, research scholars construct views about social entities on the basis of different philosophical assumptions such as:

  • Ontological assumption- It includes different views about the nature of reality in the social world (Bryman & Bell, 2007)
  • Epistemological assumption- Determine what they consider valid knowledge for the purpose of research (Saunders et al., 2009)
  • Rhetorical assumptions- Relate to the method of Dissertation Writing (Creswell, 1994)
  • Axiological assumption

Further ontological and epistemological assumptions explain how research scholars understand reality and obtain knowledge about the social world (Pathirage et al., 2008; Yin, 2009). Since the present study was value-laden where it focused to understand how entrepreneurial characteristics such as creativity and risk-taking influence Indian entrepreneurs in introducing innovative products and also participated in the research process, it upholds the interpretive philosophy that relates to rhetorical assumptions. Further the present study used an informal style and personal voice, and accepted qualitative words and limited definitions (Creswell, 1994, 1998).


Bryman, A. & Bell (2007). Barriers to Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. [Online]. 1 (1). pp. 8–22. Available from:

Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. [Online]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Available from:

Pathirage, C., Amaratunga, R. & Haigh, R. (2008). The role of philosophical context in the development of research methodology and theory. The Built and Human Environment Review.[Online].1(1).pp.1–10.Available from:

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2009). Understanding research philosophies and approaches. [Online]. Available from:

Yin, R.K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4th Ed. [Online]. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Available from:

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