Emotional Profile—Standardized Emotional Profile: SEP (Holbrook and Batra 1987b) - Statswork

Emotional Profile—Standardized Emotional Profile: SEP (Holbrook and Batra 1987b)


The purpose of designing the Standardized Emotional Profile (SEP) was to create a parsimonious scale of multi-item indices that can be used to assess emotional responses to print ads or television ads. This set of scales is especially useful in exploring the effects attributable to the nonverbal components of advertising (cf. Holbrook and Batra 1987b). Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P), arousal (A) and domination (D) emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Following are the factors:


Holbrook and Batra (1987b) derived a large set of items based on a review and synthesis of literature (Mehrabian and Russell 1974; Schlinger 1979; Wells 1964; Wells, Leavitt, and McConville 1971). Through author judgment, 109 items reflecting 29 emotions were used as the initial item pool. In a purification study, they reduced the items to a more compact battery of scales accounting for the most variance in emotional responses to advertising content.


SEP ratings were provided by 12 adult females recruited from the community (but not associated with the business school). As stated above, 72 commercials were chosen to provide a judgmental representation of a range of emotions likely to be found in television advertisements.


Specific estimates of reliability and validity were offered only for preliminary versions of the SEP. However, the four procedures used to derive the final form of the SEP suggest internal consistency estimates of .80 or above.


Mean scores for the scales were not reported by Holbrook and Batra (1987b).


Holbrook, Morris B., and Rajeev Batra. (1987b). "Toward a Standardized Emotional Profile (SEP) Useful in Measuring Responses to the Nonverbal Components of Advertising." In


Holbrook and Batra (1987)

Reliability and validity

Multiple Äs for these dependent variables were .92, .83, .84, .90, and .85, respectively.

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