Social Preference Scale (SPS / I-O scale) - Statswork

Inner -other directedness: Social Preference Scale (SPS) (I-O scale)

The scale of Need for Cognition: NFC postulated by Cacioppo and Petty (1982) is a multidimensional measure using a 9-point Likert scale.

  • Inner-directed
  • other-directed

The authors state

"Inner directed persons reflect the individual’s inner values and guidance standards for their behaviour, whereas other-directed persons rely on the people surrounds them to provide a proper direction to their activities"


Kassarjian, Waltraud M.

Reliability and Validity

  • Item-to-total correlations ranged from .32 to .94.
  • Correlations between the I-O scale and an index of behaviors (e.g., hobbies, social activity of individuals) ranged from .55 to .69 across various combinations.

Obtaining the SPS

Florida State University

The author expressed their view as follows with regards to SPS scale. Researchers who wish to use the Inner -other directedness: Social Preference Scale (SPS) (I-O scale) (Kassarjian, 1962) may be taken with proper published source.

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